In the Shadow of Angband (part II)

Player-character Backgrounds
The heroes of the First Age are of a far greater stature than those found in later ages. But while player-characters may possess truly heroic qualities, these should not approach the level of one like Beren or Finrod, such that they might alter the basic fabric of Beleriand’s history (though they may well be far better than anything found in a Third-Age campaign). They should also be well-equipped from the start of the campaign in order to be properly prepared for the struggle against Angband.

Campaign Themes
The world of Quenta Silmarillion is replete with grandiose deeds, heart-rending tragedy and dramatic atmosphere (in addition to ignoble betrayal and a good dose of horror). A campaign set in Beleriand should therefore offer more than the conventional “monster hunt”. This is a time and place where the long-term fates of mankind and elvenkind are at stake, an era of slow but inexorable defeat for the Children of the Stars.

Happy endings are rare under Angband’s shadow, and when someone succeeds in an heroic action, a bitter price must often be paid. Moral flaws (most often pride) and ill-judgment typically result in disaster.

The Watchful Peace
A suitable campaign setting might be the period between the arrival of the Edain and the Dagor Bragollach (that is, in the years 310—45), when there is a semblance of peace in Beleriand as the main protagonists make preparations for a war which they know will come soon enough. Morgoth attempts to divide the Eldarin princes by sowing discord and suspicion. Fëanor’s sons conspire to achieve their private goals; Caranthir, Celegorm, and Curufin are even ready to confront Beren and Lúthien. In such a setting it is often difficult to determine who is your friend and who is only feigning.

Player-characters might belong to the household of a Noldorin prince (e.g. Orodreth at Minas Tirith). Both Sauron and Fëanor’s sons conspire against their lord and try to infiltrate his fortress with their agents in order to gain intelligence and strengthen their positions. So there is plenty of scheming, deceit and espionage going on.

The Wanderings of the Haladin
During the 360s, Haleth leads her people on a long and strenuous west-ward migration from Thargelion by a route north of Doriath and Neldoreth through the frightful Nan Dungortheb to the beech forest of Brethil, searching for an area where the Haladin can lead their traditionally independent lives. The distance is perhaps 500 km as the crows fly, but considerably longer as men walk.

It is possible to run this “long march” as a campaign in which player-characters are Haladin leaders — perhaps advisers or commanders — under Haleth, with the responsibility to plan and execute various missions (such as reconnaissance, transportation, or military strikes that will facilitate the progress of the migration). There are paths to map, camp sites to prepare, streams to bridge, monsters to defeat, enemy positions to scout, and so one.

Haleth herself might actually be run as a player-character — a charismatic leader comparable to Napoleon, Mao Zedong or Alexander the Great. When her people has settled in Brethil, they become known as the Folk of Haleth.

The Evil Years
After Dagor Bragollach in 455 YS, the Elves and Edain are gradually pushed southwards from Dorthonion. Their defenses collapse completely at Nirnaeth Arnoediad in 473 YS and Angband’s armies pour into Beleriand. In 496 YS, Nargothrond is sacked by Glaurung. At about the same time, the Haladin are crushed and a few survivors scattered. Menegroth is sacked in the years 505 and 510, and in 511 Gondolin itself is destroyed. Only the Elven settlements on the island of Balar survive unscathed, being under the protection of Ulmo.

During these chaotic and evil years, many hardy guerilla bands (such as those led by Barahir, Beren, or Túrin) carry on a desperate struggle against the servants of Angband. Morgoth’s commanders expend great efforts to capture these freedom fighters, and in the most difficult cases Sauron himself participates (as when Barahir’s band is destroyed).

A campaign with this theme would place heavy emphasis on guerilla warfare and wilderness survival (the antagonists being not only Orcs and Easterlings, but also the merciless climate). Characters must find food, water, and lodgings in order to survive the harsh winters of northern Beleriand. Occasionally, they may get assistance from the Edain villages that have been enslaved by the Easterlings, but such actions may be perilous; the servants of Angband ruthlessly use any deceptions to capture or kill guerilla warriors.

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In the Shadow of Angband (part I)

The most suitable setting for roleplaying in the First Age of Middle-earth is Beleriand as narrated in Quenta Silmarillion, during which time the Noldor return to Middle-earth to reclaim the Silmarils from Morgoth. This period begins with Morgoth’s attack on the realm of Thingol, just prior to the coming of the Sun and Moon, and ends with the War of Wrath some six hundred years later.

The World
Beleriand suffers from a merciless struggle between Morgoth the Black Enemy and a fragile alliance of Men and Elves. The moral dispositions of the latter range from purest white (e.g. Tuor, Melian, Beren, and Lúthien) to grey-black (Fëanor’s seven sons). There is no room for negotiation or compromise with Morgoth; the conflict must continue until one side has perished. Those who collaborate with the forces of Angband will be betrayed (like Gorlim), or fail and perish from other causes (like Maeglin). The world is painted in strong colors and is peopled with heroic individuals who fight for no petty cause — the struggle is about power, glory and incredible treasures; hence it is suggested that money not exist in the campaign (there are no indications of the presence of coins in Beleriand).

Morgoth et Consortes
Between the time of the first sunrise and the War of Wrath, Morgoth dwells in his subterranean fortress of Angband far to the north, and passes its gates only when challenged by Fingolfin. His servants who openly or clandestinely fight for his cause in Beleriand and in other parts of Middle earth are many and diverse; some are described only as “fell beasts” (leaving the gamemaster free to invent his or her own terrible creatures). Tolkien mentions such minions as Balrogs (who wield magical power over fire), werewolves (who apparently do not shapeshift), vampires, wingless dragons, and phantoms with Mannish or Elven guises. Such creatures are usually evil spirits given shape by Morgoth’s fell arts, and have powers and senses that far excel those of Men and occasionally even of Elves.

Orcs and Trolls form the common soldiery of Angband [Note that, while these seemingly do not differ from their later antecedents, Uruk-hai and Olog-hai do not yet exist, being bred by Sauron only in the late Third Age.]

Following the Dagor Bragollach in 455 YS (Years of the Sun, that is, after the first sunrise), Morgoth acquires many Elven and Mannish prisoners, some of whom have their wills crushed by his power and are transformed into obedient servants. Occasionally he sends such individuals back to their homelands to spy or spread lies. Only a hero like Húrin Thalion is able to resist such power, but even he gets spiritually injured by his many years in captivity.

Sauron participates personally in the wars of Beleriand, possessing the fana (bodily appearance) of a fair Elf. He is often surrounded by werewolves, especially during his rule of Tol-in-Gaurhoth (457-467 YS). Lúthien is the only one among the Free Peoples able to sucessfully confront him; even a hero like Finrod fail to overcome Sauron’s mighty magic.

The Noldor
The Noldor of Beleriand have all come from Aman against the explicit will of the Valar and are therefore subject to the Doom of Mandos for the fell deeds committed during their journey. They have been banned from ever going back into the west by Manwë, Lord of the Valar. This curse also manifests itself through deep distrust among the Noldorin lords, and frequently causes armed conflict between the sons of Fëanor and other Noldorin leaders, climaxing with the sack of Menegroth and the killing of Dior and Nimloth.

The Seven Sons of Fëanor — Caranthir, Curufin, Celegorm, Maedhros, Maglor, Amrod, and Amras — differ considerably in their dispositions; the first three are the most ruthless and brutal; Maedhros and Maglor are more sensible and try to mediate between their brothers and other leaders; while Amrod and Amras are not particularly active in these internal struggles. Together with their father, all seven have sworn a terrible and irretractable oath: to slay any who seek to deprive them of a Silmaril. This oath is their eventual undoing, since it brings them into conflict not only with Morgoth, but also Thingol, Beren, Lúthien, Dior, and others who struggle against the shadow of Angband. The brothers participate in the Kin-slaying at Alqualondë, conspire against both Finrod and Orodreth, and kidnap Lúthien (no wonder that the other Elven princes do not dare to trust them!). In the end, six of them perish in combat, and only Maglor survives into the Second Age.

The Princes of the Noldor — Fingolfin, Fingon, and Finrod Felagund — lead many of the Noldor in Beleriand in the struggle against Morgoth, but are not bound by Fëanor’s oath. Most have high ideals and are little corrupted by the war. Finrod Felagund is even prepared to abandon his realm in order to assist Beren in his quest. The Noldor are foremost warriors and reside in fortresses at strategic locations along Beleriand’s northern border. Their principal occupations are hunting (there are no hints that the Noldor practiced agriculture), weapon-making, and preparation for war (in which they appear as the only warriors who fight from horseback).

The Sindar
The Sindar (Grey-elves) are those who remained in Beleriand and chose not to cross Belegaer to the Undying Lands. They are not as powerful as the Noldor, but know their land and deeply love it. They prefer to dwell in forests (principally in Doriath within the Girdle of Melian). Their King, Elu Thingol, resides there with his queen Melian in the Caves of Menegroth. He is nominally the overlord of all of Beleriand.

The Sindar fight mainly with spears and bows and, at first, encountered great difficulty when confronted with Morgoth’s Orcs. Later they seem to have obtained superior weapons from their Noldorin relatives.

The Laiquendi (Green-elves), who are closely related to the Sindar, dwell in the forests of Ossiriand as hunters and gatherers.

The Avari
Those Elves who remained in Cuivienen and refused to join the migration westwards are known as the Avari. They have never been subject the influence of the Valar and, so, differ considerably from the Elves of Beleriand. During the years between the kindling of the stars and the first sunrise, they spread over most of Middle-earth. The Sindar of Beleriand suspect that there are Avari east of the Ered Luin.

Avari, however, are never described in Tolkien’s works apart from the reference that the Sindar believed that they might have become like the wild animals of the forests. If you wish to introduce Avari in your campaign, there is great freedom to define them as you wish. They have likely diversified into tribes sundered from one other since the time of the Awakening.

Men
The three Houses of the Edain reach Beleriand around 310 YS, befriending its Elven princes and joining the war against Melkor. The closely related Houses of Bëor and Hador are tall and skilful warriors — the ancestors of the Númenóreans.

The Haladin are shorter and prefer to dwell in isolated forest settlements. This tribe does not survive the First Age: it is completely defeated by Morgoth’s forces in 496 YS and the few survivors are absorbed by the two other houses.

The Edain appear to possess a level of technology comparable to that of the Vikings or the Iron Ages Germanic tribes, subsisting on agriculture and hunting, and living in small villages or farms. Many of the Edain are renowned warriors, some of whom are almost as skilful as their Elven contemporaries. They eventually paid a terrible price for their alliance with the Noldor with the destruction or enslavement of their villages at the hands of Morgoth’s servants.

Various Easterling tribes arrive in Beleriand during the 5th century, some of which ally themselves with the Noldor, while others join the ranks of Angband. [Most
likely these are not related to the Easterlings that harass the realm of Gondor during the Third Age.] A few Drughu inhabit the wilds of Beleriand, preferring a withdrawn life (though they are sworn enemies of Angband and will gladly slay Orcs).

Dwarves
Dwarves seem to be of little importance to the affairs of Beleriand. Their two major settlements, the mining cities of Nogrod and Belegost, are located in Ered Luin on the border of Eriador. Occasionally, Dwarven artisans and warriors enter Beleriand. These are Morgoth’s implacable foes, but not necessarily friends of the Elves. Possession of a Silmaril leads to Thingol’s death and the first sack of Doriath at their hands.

The Dwarves are the best makers of weapons and armor in Middle-earth, and their own works can endure even the heat of dragon fire.

Other Races
Some Ents and Entwives live in Ossiriand but, as always, prefer to stay out of the affairs of Men and Elves (with one or two exceptions). The majority of their numbers appear to have remained east of Beleriand among the vast forests between Ered Luin and the Misty Mountains.

Eagles who serve Manwë live in the mountain peaks which surround the hidden vale of Gondolin, and keep watch on Beleriand for the Valar. Occasionally,they intervene to assist the Elves (e.g. the rescue of Maedhros).

Skinchangers (like the Beomings of the Third Age) may also have existed among the Free Peoples of Beleriand. [The gamemaster is free to introduce beings suitable to the mood of The Silmarillion, keeping in mind that some animals are associated with the forces of good, such as eagles and bears, while others, like wolves and bats, typically serve Angband.]

Magic
The use of magic affects the senses and alters perceptions, affording powerful disguises or illusions (cf. “Of Beren and Lúthien” in Quenta Silmarillion). While common to Beleriand, it is only exercised by a few, very powerful individuals. Apart from the Valar and the Maiar, only some of Morgoth’s
evil spirits (e.g. Thuringwethil and the Balrogs) and some Noldor (e.g. Finrod Felagund) seem to be spell-casters. Neither Men nor Dwarves have access to such power.

Magical artifacts (such as swords) are quite common, but there are no references to magical gadgets that are common in fantasy roleplaying games (e.g. rings of flying or cloaks of invisibility). The gamemaster mst be careful so as not to destroy the mood by introducing unsuitable artifacts.

Languages
The main language in Beleriand is Sindarin, the native tongue of the Sindar and the Laiquendi. The Noldor originally spoke Quenya, but its use has been prohibited by Thingol. Some Noldor surely know Telerin and Valinorean.

Dwarves speak the secretive Khuzdul among themselves, but use Sindarin with outsiders. The Ents have their fantastic tongue which no other race can be taught.

The Houses of Bëor and Hador speak similar dialects which form the roots of Adûnaic, the tongue of the later Dúnedain. The Haladin and Easterlings speak their own languages.

What language the servants of Angband use is not clear; but it is certainly not Black Speech, since that was invented by Sauron during the Second Age. Morgoth may have devised a tongue for his servants.

Semper Fidelis — Campaigning in Second Age Middle-earth (II)

Part II in my Second Age campaign outline.

Struggles of the Faithful — the Campaign Begins
Suddenly, Lord Itrahil (heriditary lord of Lebennin and head of the Faithful in the lower Anduin vale) receives seemingly un­connected leads that imply that the region is about to face a major political crisis that could lead to an Umbarian intervention and the end to the autonomy of the Faithful. There are strange rumors of the Shadow gaining a foot-hold in his land, too. He asks a team of trusted un­derlings (i.e. the player-characters) to investi­gate what evil is afoot. They must act with discretion and without any legal powers, since Itrahil does not wish to attract the attention of Lord Golmakhôr (governor of Umbar).

Meanwhile, the evil conspiracies get entangled in one another. Neither Sauron nor the scheming Umbarian nobles know that the other party is pursuing similar goals. Also, for security reasons each set of agents does not always know what their compatriot teams are up to. There is ample opportunity for chaos and combat in the dark alleys of Pelargir. The inquisitive players will get involved in many dangerous matters and they will acquire some very powerful foes who are able to seriously harass them in the future even if they uncover and interrupt any nefarious schemes.

Some Ideas for Campaign Developments
Tolkien’s texts on Second Age history do not speak much of what happens in Lebennin during the last two centuries of Númenor’s exist­ence. The gamemaster is actually able to jus­tify a temporary Umbarian intervention and occupation of Lebennin without contradicting what Tolkien has written. Hence a failure by the players to uncover what plots are going on could well have disastrous consequences for their province: years of oppression by the King’s Men. The campaign could then shift its focus and deal how to resist the tyranny and alleviate the plight of the Faithful com­moners (cf. the legends of Robin Hood).

One way of dealing with the campaign would be to let the players participate in the plan­ning and preparations for a popular uprising in Lebennin. When the opportune moment offers itself in the chaos following Númenor’s demise, the characters could lead the insur­rection in some places and therefore be the first to wel­come the survivors from Elenna when Elendil’s storm-driven ships reach Middle-earth’s shore.

Sauron in the Second Age
Sauron is thoroughly evil since more than two thousand years, but he still retains his fair physical Maia body. He is therefore less bitter and vengeful, instead more snake-ish and shrewd. That condition should be reflected on his physical realm, too. Therefore, put less dirt and fumes in Mordor; instead use more of depravity and illusory beauty. Deception is the current name of the game, not the overt brutality that Frodo will face three millennia later. Many centuries ago, Sauron managed to deceive the Elf-lord Celebrimbor of Hollin that he was Annatar, an emissary of the Valar; that would be an impossible feat for his grim Third-Age incarnation. He possesses the One Ring, which gives him a supernatural charisma, and has his band of Nazgûl at hand, but his Elven arch-opponent Gil-galad is powerful enough to stand firm against all those dark powers.

Mordor’s sole attempt so far to conquer north-western Middle-earth — some years after the forging of the One Ring — was crushed by an Elven-Númenorean alliance, so Sauron is well aware of the full strength of his enemies. His long-term strategy has switched to infect the culture of Númenor with foul ideas to make Dúnedain rot and and perish from within. The Faithful of Lebennin pose a significant obstacle to these ambitions, because they refuse to taste his spiritual poison.

Depicting a Second-Age Middle-earth
“Everybody” knows what Gondor in the late Third Age is like — Tolkien’s books make comments here and there on daily life. So it is important that the game master shows the players that this is the same place in a very different era.

Never use words like Gondor and Arnor, Anorien or Ithilien. Make sure to show that the sites of the future cities of Minas Tirith/Anor and Osgiliath currently only house small strongholds (with other names) at Lebennin’s north-east frontier. North of that border adventurers will find only savage tribes, probably various “bronze-age” ancestors of the Dunlendings and the Northmen. The same condition applies to Belfalas; the city of Lond Ernil/Dol Amroth does not yet exist and the region is not yet under Dúnedain rule.

The Faithful of Lebennin is a disliked and suspect minority among the Númenoreans. They are dissidents (perhaps even “heretics”) that have built a refuge at the mouth of the Anduin, but they know that if they incur the King’s displeasure, they will suffer. So they always tread carefully when dealing with royal emissaries or the royal navy.

If late-Third-Age Gondor is an equivalent of a declining Bysantine empire, late-Second-Age Lebennin is rather comparable to Gaul in the time of the 4th-century Roman empire: a fertile border province with patrician villas, togas, and which faces stern barbarians beyond the frontier. The faraway ruler of the vast Númenorean empire is narcissistic and decadent, his supporters despotic, corrupt and greedy. Ethnic supremacy has become an acceptable norm, replacing the decency of the Way of the Valar as the underpinning ideology of the state. Ergo, the main enemy is within the Dúnedain society itself, not an outside force beyond a black mountain range.

The Númenoreans will soon cause their own downfall — with some nudging from Sauron. Keep in mind that in SA 3150 their decay is not recent; Númenor has been going down-hill for centuries and the arrogant ideals of the King’s Men are therefore well-established social norms. Most are (to use modern terms ) racist and chauvinist, believing that their realm — nowadays always referred to Yôzâyan in their own Adûnaic language — has the right to rule over, even to enslave, “lesser” human peoples thanks to the “superior qualities” of the Adûnâim (the Adunaic word for Dúnedain).

Third-Age Gondor is a subtropical culture, located in a climate zone resembling southern France judging from Ithilien’s vegetation. Second-Age Númenor is more of a tropical culture with almost all of its colonial empire located in the hot region of Umbar and Far Harad. Let this be reflected in the customs, dress code and diet of the King’s Men (perhaps touches of pre-colonial Sri Lanka, Indonesia and East Africa), who have lived for generations in these southern lands. Some suggestions: cultivation of rice and yam instead of wheat and potato; vast slave plantations; buffaloes as beasts of burden; few horses south of Umbar; sarongs instead of trousers; sandals instead of boots.

Semper Fidelis — a Second Age Campaign in Middle-earth (I)

The first version of this article was written in the early 1990s for the now-defunct Tolkien gaming journal Other Hands. Initially I had written another article on how to set adventures in the First, Second, and Fourth Ages of Arda, which led to a discus­sion with fellow game-designer Mats Blomqvist. He thought that it would be impossible to run a campaign in the Second Age due to the scar­city of source material.

Seemingly, Mats was right because Tolkien’s texts dealing with that era are few and brief: Appendices A and B in The Return of the King, “Akallabêth” in The Silmarillion, and Part Two of Unfinished Tales (e.g. “The Tale of Aldarion and Erendis”). Mats, a scholar of literature, said that what we read in those texts is not how Númenor actually was, but rather how the Dúnedain three thousand years later viewed Númenor through the scanty documents preserved from before the Downfall (much like how we modern Europeans think of ancient Rome and Greece). It is not possible, for in­stance, to glean an adequate knowledge of the great engineering skills evidently possessed by the Númenóreans.

Eventually I disagreed, believing it to be possible to successfully run a Númenor-related campaign, though such an endeavor would require a lot of effort by the gamemaster. This text, revised and expanded in 2013, presents some ideas on the subject. I am fairly specific about a lot of details, not because I possess any special knowledge of them, but rather to show the enterprising gamemaster how the patchy primary sources have to be augmented by her inventions.

Selecting a Campaign Century
Much of Númenor’s history is boring, it being a well-run nation blessed by the Valar and with few disputes with other peoples. Hence it hardly provides enough punch for the average role-player, who wants tensions and conflicts which may bring exciting adventures. The interesting times¹ begin when the Númenóreans openly turn away from the ideals of the Valar, i.e. from the corona­tion of Ar-Gimilzôr in SA 3102 to the Downfall in SA 3319. During these two centuries, Númenor’s elite break completely with the tradi­tions of past and cut all ties with the Eldar. The realm is plagued by political in­trigues in which egotistical noblemen vie for the King’s ear. The “anti-Valar” faction, commonly called the King’s Men, suffers from overbearing pride in their perceived superior qualities.

Meanwhile, the Faithful (the traditionalist “pro-Valar” faction) struggle to survive in places such as Rómenna and Lebennin. They founded Pelargir in SA 2350 as their urban center in Middle-earth, where they have con­tacts with the Eldar of Edhellond. The Faithful community of Lebennin somewhat resembles what the future Gondor will be; hence there is useful information in primary sources² when designing it. It provides a good campaign environment in which the players have Faithful characters that actively op­pose Sauron’s conspiracies and the oppressive ambitions of the King’s Men.

The King’s Men have established extensive colonies in Middle-earth, while shunning its northwestern parts due to the proximity of the Elves in Lindon and Lothlórien. The closest one is Umbar, while others are located further south. The royal authorities in Umbar are suspicious of what “those Elf-lovers” in the Anduin vale are up to. Sauron, now openly the King of Mordor, dislikes his next-door Dúnadan and Quendi neighbors, and would gladly see them crushed or expelled from the region. However, he is not yet willing to challenge Númenor by a military move, because he remembers the defeat he suffered when fighting the united armies of Elves and Númenoreans in Eriador around SA 1700.

Lebennin — Home of the Faithful
Lebennin is a fertile land of plains. Its original population consisted of indigenous tribes, cousins of the inhabitants of Enedwaith. However, the plains tribes have been sub­jected to a strong Faithful influence since the early parts of the third millennium of the Sec­ond Age; hence “by now” they have become “Dúnadanized” to a great extent. The Faithful have migrated from Elenna* to Lebennin since the reign of Tar-Atanamir the Great in the 21st century of the Second Age, at which time they real­ized that Númenor’s ruling elite had begun to stray from the traditions of Elros Tar-Minyatur, the first king. In the 32nd century, Lebennin’s Faithful population numbers about one million, of which less than 10% is of pure Númenórean descent. There is only one city, Pelargir, but the countryside is dotted with villages and towns³.

Before the arrival of the men of Westernesse, the Lebennin region was under Sauron’s influence. Those indigenous clans that preferred the Shadow moved away into the highland valleys of the Ered Nimrais and the Belfalas peninsula when the Faithful settlers gained influence. They still remain there, hating the Faithful and ready to serve the Lord of Mordor. The Dúnedain therefore call them the Wild Men of the Mountains.

In SA 3150, Pelargir is a well-fortified haven, with about ten thousand inhabitants, and it has been the administrative center of Lebennin for about 800 years. Itrahil, its current heriditary lord, belongs to the line of Imrazôr and is recognized as the local leader by all Faithful. He is de jure responsible to king Ar-Gimilzôr of Númenor, but Lebennin has de facto gradually acquired a semi-au­tonomous status, handling its own taxation and militia.

In this period, the region should probably be portrayed as a somewhat more rural ver­sion of late Third Age Gondor. There are many similarities in how the “state” and civil society works, with the Lord of Lebennin in a position resembling that of the ruling Stewards of Gondor. However, the notable Elven presence is a major difference from later ages. It is also clear for the Faithful set­tlers of late Second Age that Lebennin is but a small part of the mighty Númenórean empire and that they are an openly disliked minority.

The Lebennians know of Sauron of Mordor. At this time, his dominion does not stretch west of the Ephel Dúath, but people that live in Lossarnach see that forbidding black mountain range at the eastern horizon. They know that Sauron hates the descendants of the Edain† for their participation in the war against Morgoth in the First Age more than 3,000 years ago and that he aspires for dominion over all of Middle-earth.

Friends of the Faithful
However, the Faithful have powerful friends in the Elves, since the two kindreds are not yet sundered. There are frequent vis­its by Elves to Pelargir, much to the chagrin of the King’s Men in Umbar. The Elf-haven of Edhellond on the west side Belfalas peninsula is a notable urban settlement in Lebennin’s vicinity. It is smaller than Pelargir and purely Elvish. Its main task is to facilitate the emigra­tion of Elves to Aman, just like the compa­rable havens in Lindon. It is mostly Elves from Greenwood the Great, Lothlórien and the East that go to Edhellond.

Another ally are the Drúedain tribes of the forests in Anórien and Ithilien. This people hate the Orcs of Mordor and desire to keep their ancestral lands free of outsiders, a wish re­spected by the Lord of Lebennin (though this policy is ridiculed by the King’s Men).

Foes of the Faithful
During the two centuries preceding the Akallabêth, Lebennin does not suffer from major foreign invasions. Instead, the Faith­ful have to deal with the schemes of three hostile neighbors which for various reasons wish to assume control over the region or destabilize it.

1. The Wild Men in Ered Nimrais and Belfalas jealously have for centuries watched how the Faithful have turned Lebennin into a bounti­ful land, and they wish to conquer and plunder it since they consider it to be theirs. However, the mountain tribes are disorganized barbarians and do not pose a military threat to the well-organized Lebennin society. On the other hand, should an opportunity appear, hotspurs among the Wild Men will certainly use it to attack their hated neighbors. The appearance of a charismatic warlord (someone comparable to e.g. Shaka Zulu) that unites the tribes would also pose a significant danger to the Faithful.

2. Certain haughty nobles among the King’s Men of Umbar want to crush the Faithful, their ideological opponents, and sub­jugate them to the King’s rule. However, as long as Lebennin’s settlers are not openly hostile to the King, they cannot be chas­tised by armed might. Also, Lebennin serves as a useful military buffer against Mordor. It would be strategically unwise for Sauron to make a move against Umbar without neu­tralizing Pelargir first, otherwise the fortified city would threaten his southbound lines of communication across the Poros river. To be able to justify an Umbarian occupation of Lebennin, these noblemen must create a credible impres­sion that the settlers of Lebennin are enemies of king Ar-Gimilzôr, for instance by pro­voking them to actions that could be interpreted as treasonous.

3. Sauron desires to eradicate the ideals of the Faithful from Middle-earth as that would make it far easier to further corrupt the remaining Númenóreans. However, he can­ not make a military move against a Númenórean possession without engaging in a full-scale war with that realm, a conflict he doubts he would win. Instead, he has to de­stroy Lebennin from within, either by spread­ing spiritual corruption or by causing the authorities in Umbar to strike at the Faithful community. The latter could for instance be achieved by covertly deceiving the Governor of Umbar Lord Golmakhôr (an ardent King’s Man) to believe that the Lebennians intend to secede.

Sauron and the schemers in Umbar have, unbeknownst to each other, inserted several covert agent teams into Lebennin with the intention to destabilize the region. Sauron uses only corrupt Lebennians for his operation, because outsiders would attract too much attention. Some Sauronic teams will incite the mountain tribes to raid outlying settlements. Others will try to estab­lish Evil cults in Pelargir with the long-term goal of corrupting Lebennin from within. One gang will engage in seemingly random terror attacks on known King’s Men that visit the area or on property belonging to the King, e.g. the small naval installations in Pelargir’s port.

The Umbarian agents have other goals. One team will spread false information that implies that an Umbarian military move against Lebennin is soon to take place. For instance they could possess forged documents detailing how an Umbarian garrison will take over the defense of Pelargir and try to get these into Lord Itrahil’s hands. Another will try to convince him that people he have trusted are plotting together with Umbarian nobles to seize power in Lebennin.

Go to part II >>>

This Wikipedia article summarizes the history of Númenor >>>>

Footnotes
¹ At least as seen from the perspective of a famous Chinese proverb.
² After all, Lebennin is where Elendil and his sons established their South-king­dom. They must have adopted a lot of existing political and social practices when founding the new state of Gondor.
³ Keep in mind that Minas Anor, Minas Ithil, and Osgiliath are founded by Elendil after the demise of Númenor.
† The three Houses of the Edain were the First-Age ancestors of the Númenoreans.
* Elenna (star-wards) is the Elven name of the huge island which is the home of the Kingdom of Númenor/Westernesse. At the beginning of the Second Age, Valar granted it as a gift to the surviving Edain for their steadfast support to the Elves during the long struggles against Morgoth.

The Ballad of Aelindur

On the southern shore of Nurn you find
Aelindur’s misty flower field
with her magic roses, black and white.
In the hour of midnight
she is dancing right across the field
weaving signs of magic, runes of might.
And she sings: “Burzum ûk,”
chanting words of power, Sauron’s child.
And then the swaying magic roses
growing in the field obey,
sending streams of evil, pale as death.
For though each rose is graceful, it is
filled with Mordor’s baleful breath
used by Aelindur Elvenmaid.
And when the Moon is rising,
then an evil eye looks down on you,
sending forth her powers to your mind.
You wake up to the sound of chanting;
Aelindur comes to you
wearing words of magic, words to bind:
“Be my slave, be my slave!”
Then you must surrender, and you do.
Thus you are, thus you are
bound with words of chaining, thus you are.

The Logistics of Minas Tirith

I wrote this text about 20 years ago for the now-defunct Tolkien gaming journal Other Hands. It deals with issue of city planning in a fantasy context.

Minas Tirith is a city planner’s nightmare—a big city on a hill with seven concentric walls and a very small number of gates (The outer wall has only one gate through which all traffic in and out of the city must pass.), which creates a serious logistical problem. Due to the lack of primary source references, my reasoning in the following paragraphs is speculative, though it is based on sound historical and military facts.

If we assume that the city has approximately 50,000 inhabitants—a realistic figure, given the size of Gondor—and that each of these consume 2.5 kg (6 lbs) of food per day (excluding wa­ter, which is supplied by internal wells and rain cisterns), the city must daily receive about 150 tonnes of food supplies. There would obviously need to be a steady stream of wagons coming into the city from the Harlond docks and the Anórien and Lebennin roads.

Assuming that one wagon can load 450-500 kg (about 1,000 lbs) of supplies, 300 wagons a day must reach the city, which makes approximately one every five minutes if the wagon traffic runs 24 hours a day. However, it seems unlikely that wagons would be working during night due to the ab­sence of proper artificial lighting. Instead, it is more realistic to assume that the tempo is one wagon every two minutes. The roads running to Minas Tirith would clearly need at least two (and preferably three or four) lanes in order to be able to deal with this amount of traffic. Four lanes would certainly be necessary for the Harlond road.

The layout of Minas Tirith prevents the use of large wagons in the city. Instead, the city porters must use smaller and more agile carts, perhaps something similar to a hand-drawn rickshaw, in order to navigate the numerous tunnels and tight street curves. In ancient Rome, transportation of goods was only allowed during the dark hours to prevent conges­tion of the streets during the day-time. Most likely there were similar regulations in Minas Tirith. Outside the Great Gate there would have to be a reloading and storage depot area where goods could be transferred from wag­ons to carts. The wagons would arrive by day to deposit goods there and, after sunset, the city porters would come with their carts to take the goods inside the walls. One consequence of this arrangement is that the city’s bakeries and butcher shops should be located on the lowest level, preferably as close to the Great Gate as possible.

Another consequence is that the people running teamster and carting businesses should be influential in city politics; after all, their hard work ensure that the city stays well-fed. Most likely, the official overseeing the depot area is a senior “civil servant” who is appointed by the Steward and who reports directly to him.

It might be possible to have hoists on top of the walls to alleviate the congestion, but this would only be practical at the outermost city level, where flour sacks could be lifted straight from a wagon over the city wall to the backyard of a bakery. Such devices are not mentioned in The Return of the King, but it is likely that the Steward would have ordered their removal when the war approached in any case.

Every morning, a swarm of servants would have to descend from the upper city levels to buy fresh food. If there were a day-time city food market (very likely), it would probably be located in an open field just outside the Great Gate so that the peasants would not have to enter the city to sell their wares. There should also be a similar fish market right next to Harlond. In addition to foodstuffs, there would also be deliveries of raw materials to city arti­sans and the problem of transporting their products to other parts of Gondor, creating additional traffic through the Great Gate.

A big fortified city of medieval Europe had numerous gates in its outermost wall just to be able to deal with the transportation of goods. Medieval Visby in Sweden (a town much smaller than Minas Tirith) had three gates that opened onto the adjacent farmlands and a big port. Minas Tirith’s layout is clearly that of a fantasy world, making her an imposing beauty, though quite improbable.